Friday, September 27, 2013

Google's Hummingbird Algorithm: All You Need to Know!

Google did a major change into its search algorithm with the Hummingbird update. This update is one of the major updates to happen since 2000 when the first rewrite of the original search algorithm was done by Amit Singhal, senior VP, Google. After 2000, many further updates were done, like the Caffeine update for getting faster indexation or the recent Panda and Penguin updates for tackling web spam; but those updates worked on improving the main algorithm that was created in 2000. With the Hummingbird search algorithm update, Google has revised the way it predicts the query and puts into use conversational search, semantic search and natural language processing to return more precise results to the user.

(Amit Singhal, senior vice president of search at Google, introduces the new 'Hummingbird' search algorithm at the garage where the company was founded on Google's 15th anniversary in Menlo Park, California September 26, 2013.
Credit: Reuters/Stephen Lam)

Earlier, Google used to pick words from the search query and find out web pages that used those words based on over 200 different signals. But, the Hummingbird search algorithm has provided a fresh new approach to how Google predicts the search query. Google will now predict the context of the search query and try to return more precise results often based on searchers intent, relationship between words, use of pronouns, searchers location, underlying meaning of the words of the search query etc.

The figure below shows the timeline of Google search. Features like did you mean, synonym search, autocomplete, universal search, Google instant, Knowledge Graph etc have all contributed for a better and a more precise Hummingbird algorithm.

The Timeline for Google Search (Image source:- googleblog)

Google had launched Knowledge Graph in May 16th, 2012 and expanded it in Oct 19th, 2012. The Knowledge Graph is a basic model working on the concept of semantic search. It helps Google to find the relationships between search entities and categorizes people, places and things for the betterment of the search. For a more deeper understanding of Knowledge Graph, click here.

The Hummingbird algorithm will explore the power of relationship between entities for finding out the context of the query. Apart from Knowledge Graph, it will use features and concepts like voice search, natural language processing, Google now, comparisons and filters in Knowledge Graph, comparison tool, Google reminders etc.

All the above features and updates will work behind the scenes for Hummingbird update.

Some Questions Related to the Hummingbird Algorithm Update

Why did Google updated to Hummingbird algorithm instead of its old algorithm?

Google needs to handle long and complex search queries that demanded precise and accurate results. Due to the amazing capability of Google to return accurate results, users have started to rely more and more on the search engine with the result that longer and complex queries were entered. It is for this reason that Google had replaced the old algorithm and updated to Hummingbird for accurately predicting the users intent behind the query and to present them the closely matching results.

When did this update happened?

The exact date is not announced but it may have happened around the end of August or the first week of September.

Who announced this update?

This update was announced by Amit Singhal, senior VP Google, on the company's 15th birthday. Amit mentioned about this update at an event hosted in the garage that Larry Page and Sergey Brin (Google founders) had rented to start their own search company which is today known as "Google".

What percentage of search queries are affected by this update?

It affects nearly 90% of the worldwide searches. It would normally get reflected on long tail queries.

What about Penguin and Panda?

Penguin and Panda are two of the most successful web spam updates and they will continue to work alongside Hummingbird.

How is Hummingbird different from the old algorithm?

The old algorithm worked on word by word basis and did not interpreted the combined context of the group of words used in the search query. However, the Hummingbird update finds out the real meaning behind the search query and returns more precise results.

Amit Singhal Sharing His Views on Google Search After Unveiling Hummingbird Algorithm

Here is a short video transcription to what he said:-

" When it comes to technology behind search, the fact is that computers still don't understand language like you and I do. We at Google had made tremendous advances in understanding language...Knowledge Graph has been foundation into that, the new algorithm that we launched today called Hummingbird has been a great leap forward, but still we are far from human level understanding of language. Still having more computers helps, but its really not the bottleneck that we are facing these days, its all about understanding better what users expect from Google, what they are asking and then fulfilling it via algorithms..."

The Backbone of Hummingbird Algorithm

The backbone of Hummingbird algorithm is built upon few main technologies as described below:-

Conversational Search

Google has moved a step forward from being a search engine to a QA engine. A machine that can interact with you in the same manner as you would indulge in conversation with your family or friends. You can ask Google "How old is Justin Bieber?" and Google will return the current age, instead of just returning references to web pages that may contain information related to Justin Biebers age. This is made possible with the help of conversational search (Google also returns Knowledge graph information related to Justin Bieber which means Google is using the Knowledge graph to find out the age related information). You can now directly interact with Google and find direct answers to most of your queries. But still, this works on particularly long tail queries, something that can hint Google that the user is demanding an answer instead of the conventional search results.

Semantic Search

Semantics is "Science of meaning in languages" and it forms a base of the Google's relevancy factor of the main search algorithm. As SEO's we all know that the main components of search algorithm is divided into 2 parts namely the relevancy factor and the popularity factor. Relevancy is measured taking into account Semantics, NLP, LSI, TF-IDF, QDF etc. and popularity is measured on the basis of backlinks.

Semantics forms the base working behind the main relevancy search algorithm. The Knowledge Graph powers the semantic search model for Google.

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

This is one of the important areas which takes into account and makes use of machine translation, sentiment analysis and question answering. It works on the principle that search engines should process the natural language queries in the same way as humans do. This involves detecting parts of speech within the search query and relationships between them and other wide array of search technologies for better parsing of the main search query.

Knowledge Graph

A huge database of objects and their relationships have been covered in what is known as the "Knowledge Graph". This database stores data related to people, places and their relationships. It helps Google to parse the query which includes the name of people and places and helps it to return more precise results. The Knowledge Graph is increasing day by day and by making use of trusted resources like Wikipedia, this huge database of facts is helping Google power today's Hummingbird algorithm.

Google Now

Think of it as your own personal assistant. It helps you to stay connected with your interests and also lets you set reminders or restaurant reservations. This is a great way to judge the fact that Google is going to interact with our lives at a very personal level. Hummingbird is an extension towards this approach, i.e. to specifically cater to your demands instead of showing irrelevant search results that bears no relation with your location or interests.

Also See:- 

New Google Search Quality Updates: Page Quality, Location, Proximity most important
Understanding Google's Page Layout Algorithm
Seo Guide for Schema Vocabulary
How to Tag a Site in Google Webmasters?
Google Local Carousel
Quoted Search Results
Search Appearance Pop Up

Thursday, September 26, 2013

Now Search For #Hashtags in Google

Amazed? But YES, now it's possible to search for #hashtags in Google itself. Searching for #hashtags returns a set of relevant Google Plus posts that have been shared publicly or shared with you. The returned results gets displayed on the right hand side of the regular search results.

Have a look at the below screen shot that displays results returned when searching for a hashtag #Emmys. Notice the results on the right hand side which comes directly from Google Plus.

This was shared by Zaheed Sabur currently working as a Senior Software Engineer, tech lead for Google in Zurich, Switzerland. Here is a screenshot to what he says:-

Also See:-

Google Testing Author Information in Search Results

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

What Can E-Commerce Sites Do to Avoid Duplicate Content Issue?

E-Commerce sites often face the difficulty of getting affected by duplicate content issue because of the presence of similar products with same descriptions or ingredient list. This happens because the same products are being sold on many sites. So, what are the possible ways through which we can avoid Google seeing the content as duplicate so that it passes value to the website and ranks it higher among a similar set of results.

Rel=canonical Tags

If the site is having product pages divided on the basis of color, sizes or other variations then it is recommended to use a rel=canonical tag.

More help can be found here:-

Pagination Tags

If the site displays product lists across multiple pages then use the pagination tags to tell Google that your content is spread across multiple pages and that should be treated as one page.

Read more:-

Rich Snippets

Implementing rich snippets on the product pages are a great way to let Google know about the price and other specifications of the individual products. Rich snippets are a great way to provide users with additional data. Although rich snippets do not help in resolving duplicate content issue directly but it can a great hint to properly analyze the contents of the page. Also adding ratings and reviews rich snippets enables users to add comments on the individual product pages and you can get valuable unique content for your individual product pages.

Some more help:-

Use Unique Content

Probably the best way to make your site stand apart is by adding unique content on every page. This will take time and effort but it is the best strategy to follow in the long run. Have a look at the video of Matt Cutts below:-

Also See:-

Saturday, September 21, 2013

Exit Rate Vs Bounce Rate in Google Analytics - Guess the Difference!

Bounce rate and exit rate are two of the finest metrics in Google Analytics. These are often thought to be similar but actually both of these present a different scenario of page level metrics. Let's understand the differences between the exit rate and bounce rate.

Exit Rate (Visitor visits multiple pages)

Suppose any web page in your site receives 100 page views covering 100 sessions. But on 10 of those sessions, visitors leave your site from this page. This means, the web page is having 10% exit rate.

Bounce Rate (Visitor visits a single page)

Taking the above example, 20 of the page views starts with the page as the main landing page. Visitors leave the site from the landing page itself involving 10 of the 20 sessions. In this case, the bounce rate of the same page would be 50%.

Hence, at the same time, any web page can have a different bounce rate and a completely different exit rate. In the example above, the bounce rate is 50% while the exit rate is 10% of the same page. This is the wonderful part of Google Analytics and page level metrics.

The image displays different data for bounce rate and exit rate

Always remember, bounce rate calculation involves the main page as the landing page while exit rate calculation includes all traffic for every session where the main page is a part. 

For more clarification, have a look at the video given below:-

Also See:-

How to Create Goals in GA?
Custom Variables in Google Analytics
How to Create a New Dashboard in Google Analytics?
Understanding Goal Flow in Google Analytics
Google Tag Manager
How to Decrease Bounce Rate?
Multi Channel Funnel in Google Analytics
Regular Expressions on Google Analytics

Sunday, September 15, 2013

How to Use the New Google Keyword Planner Tool Accurately?

With the recent replacement of the popular keyword tool with the new keyword planner, webmasters and internet marketers were more than eager to try out this new version for carrying out keyword research. But, to everyone's surprise the new tool has been integrated with the adwords account thereby needing a login before anyone can start using the keyword planner.

The modern keyword planner tool will look a lot confusing in the first use with no choice of local search volume data. But, there are many welcoming replacements that were done in order to improve the efficiency of the overall research.

Let's take a deep look in the modern era version of the historic keyword tool.

Sign in With Your Adwords Account to Start Using it

The first requirement is to register yourself as an adwords user before you can have a glimpse of it. Don't worry, it's not that tough and you won't be charged for this. This is absolutely free. After you have signed up and logged in, move to the keyword planner located under tools and analysis. 

Plan Your Next Search Campaign

You will soon be provided with 3 options:- 

Search for a keyword and ad group ideas
Enter or upload keywords to see how they perform
Multiply keyword lists

Choose the first option if you want to individually enter the keywords to see their performance, search volume data, competition and average CPC.

If you are already having a predefined set of keywords, then go for the second option.

Suppose, you are having two separate lists that can be merged together to get keyword ideas then click on the third option.

In a majority of cases, the first option is what you will choose so we will move ahead keeping the individual search in mind.

Ad Group Ideas and Keyword Ideas

The ad group ideas column displaying the total number of avg. monthly searches per ad group

Now click on the first option and enter your main keyword. You will enter an interface displaying two columns of ad group ideas and keyword ideas respectively. The ad group ideas is the by default column. Let's distinguish between the two:- 

Ad group ideas - This column displays the relevant keywords sorted under various categories/groups. Each group will contain similar keywords that is relevant to the main group title. What's good is, it will show a combined average monthly search volume of all the individual keywords contained in the ad group.

Keyword ideas - This column will display the individual keyword search volume as it used to display in the old interface.

The Average Monthly Search Column

The data displays the average number of times people have searched for the exact keyword over a period of 12 months based on the targeted settings (explained ahead).

Competition, CPC and Ad Impression Share Columns

The competition column lets you see the overall competition for the particular keyword on a metric of high, medium and low. 

The CPC column lets you see the average cost per click based on the targeted settings and the overall bids.

The Ad impression share column displays the total number of impressions received as compared to the last calendar month. 

Refining The Results

You may refine the research data with the help of the targeting column. The targeting interface lets you choose a specific location (even a particular city), specific language, targeted database (Google or search partners) or exclude negative keywords. This is particularly helpful in making your search campaign locally relevant and allows you to get targeted leads that leads to more conversions.

Customizing Your Search

You can customize your search by adding keyword filters based on average monthly searches, CPC or impressions.

Keyword Options

This option is particularly useful in doing research related to adult keywords. You need to change the keyword options settings to let Google display the adult related keywords under the keyword ideas.

Including or Excluding Certain Keywords

You may choose to include or to exclude certain keywords by using this option. 

The Broad Match, Exact Match and Phrase Match (It is there, but don't get confused)

You can see the broad match, exact match and the phrase match options located inside the pencil icon at the right most column of the research interface. But do not get confused with this, it does not changes the average search volumes of the selected keywords to exact, broad or phrase match but instead it only affects the click and cost estimates. The average search volume has an exact match criteria by default.

Have you tried the keyword planner tool yet? Share your comments below.

Friday, September 13, 2013

Site Affected by Panda Update? Here is What Matt Suggests You to Do!

After more than 2 years since the Google Panda update was launched in Feb 23, 2011, many webmasters are still confused as to why their website's search engine rankings are going down? Some blame it on the Panda update while others think it might be because of a Penguin update? It can sometimes be so irritating for a site owner to specifically find a reason for a drop in rankings.

Our friend, Matt Cutts has recently uploaded a video explaining the steps you should take if your site is being affected by the Panda update. Well, for those of you who don't know what this update was about, here is quick summary:-

Panda was an algorithm update that targeted sites having low quality content, thin content targeted around specific long tail keywords, content full of ads serving less value to the user etc. Basically, it filtered the quality sites from the low quality ones. Panda has recently being integrated into the main Google search algorithm.

Now, have a look at this video:-

Althought Matt has refrained himself from going into the details but still "quality content" comes out as the lone factor in making your site Panda friendly. At least, this is what the video is suggesting. So, for those of you whose sites have been affected by the Panda update, here are a few steps that you must follow:-

Making Your Site Panda Proof

  • Check the entire site for any form of content duplicacy. No form of scraped content should be present on the site. 

  • Identify boiler plate content (similar text present on the entire site) and reduce it.

  • Make sure your content adds value to the user.

  • Increase social shareability of the content. Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus etc, all can help in this regard.

  • Make sure the content does not starts with an ad. The ad to content ratio should be reasonable and must not irritate the users.

  • Identify similar pages that are focused on a single topic and either merge those pages together or remove the too much similar ones. 

  • Add comprehensive content on the pages. The best way is to update them with new content on a regular basis.

For more tips, read the SEO Checklist to Panda Proof Your Website.

Hope this will make your site Panda friendly. Best of luck!

Also See:- 

Seo After Panda and Penguin Update
Infographic on Google Panda Update
Google Panda Update 22
Google Panda Update 21
Google Panda Update Number 20
Google Panda 3.9.1
New Google Search Quality Updates
Importance of Content for Seo in a Post Panda World
What is Good Content?
Seo Content Copywriting Basics
3 Seo Fundamentals Every Webmaster Should Follow
Seo Secrets
Seo Lessons and Tutorial
How to Make Your Website More User Friendly
How to Create Compeling Content?

Sunday, September 8, 2013

Top Seo People and Profiles to Follow on Twitter

Twitter is a great platform which keeps you in touch with industry experts. Here is a list of top seo people and profiles whom you should follow on Twitter.

1- Matt Cutts @ mattcutts

He is the head of the webspam team at Google. All the latest updates that Google does like Panda, Penguin, EMD etc are tweeted him.

Total Followers - 2,69,671  Retweet Rank - 32,572  Klout Score -84

2 - Danny Sullivan @ dannysullivan

The man behind search engine land, considered as the most authoritative source on search.

Total Followers - 3,35,114  Retweet Rank - 2,24,019  Klout Score - 87

3- Rand Fishkin @ randfish

The founder of Moz and the undisputed authority on seo and internet marketing.

Total Followers - 1,15,030 Retweet Rank - 1,07,682  Klout Score - 79

4- Google @ google

The search engine giant itself! No explanations here on why you should follow Google :)

Total Followers - 68,70,449 Retweet Rank - 10,125  Klout Score - 97

5- Search Engine Land @ sengineland

Stay updated on latest news and stuffs related to the search engine marketing industry by following search engine land.

Total Followers - 1,97,072  Retweet Rank - 1,08,395  Klout Score - 80

6- Moz @ moz

The world's most popular seo+online marketing software. It shares resources for learning inbound marketing.

Total Followers - 2,31,668 Retweet Rank - 1,08,600   Klout Score - 79

7- Barry Schwartz @ rustybrick

The man behind seroundtabe, which updates the latest stuff and updates related to search engines.

Total Followers - 42,152  Retweet Rank - 1,10,362  Klout Score - 82

8- Aaron Wall @ aaronwall

One of the well known search engine optimizers. His tutorials and tools are available on

Total Followers - 72,190 Retweet Rank - 109,153  Klout Score - 63

9- Avinash Kaushik @ avinash

Author of web analytics 2.0, Avinash is an expertise in Google Analytics.

Total Followers - 1,13,314 Retweet Rank -  1,07,824  Klout Score - 83

10- Michael Gray @ graywolf

He tweets great stuff related to seo and internet marketing.

Total Followers - 27,208  Retweet Rank - 27,209  Klout Score - 82

11- Eric Ward @ ericward

The father of link building, Eric ward shares exciting stuff related to link building.

Total Followers - 9,627  Retweet Rank - 1,10,414   Klout Score - 60

12- Google Analytics @ googleanalytics

Latest news and tips from Google Analytics teams and friends.

Total Followers - 3,28,326  Retweet Rank - 2,15,311  Klout Score - 84

13- Dave Naylor @ davenaylor

Shares exciting and worth reading updates related to seo and internet marketing.

Total Followers - 23,829  Retweet Rank - 1,11,173  Klout Score - 68

14- Matt McGee @ mattmcgee

Editor of search engine land. Matt McGee updates us news related to search engines.

Total Followers - 23,884  Retweet Rank - 1,10,766  Klout Score - 71

15- Bill Slawski @ bill_slawski

The patent guru, Bill, is a worth follow on Twitter.

Total Followers - 11,530  Retweet Rank - 1,24,862  Klout Score - 68

16- Google Webmasters @ googleWMC

It tweets about the latest updates about your site's visibility on Google.

Total Followers -  88,454  Retweet Rank -  2767  Klout Score - 59

Also See:-

Best and Worst Time to Post on Social Media Sites
How to Get More Twitter Followers?
Twitter marketing strategy
Geo targeted ads from twitter
What is a twitter hashtag
Top 5 social media tools
Top Seo Trumps to Follow

Saturday, September 7, 2013

Search Queries in GWT - Creating Filters and Viewing Top Pages

Google Webmasters tool provides options for viewing the search queries that are bringing in traffic to your website. You may see the top pages that are viewed the most by your site visitors and also filter the top search queries as per the your target markets.

Search Queries in GWT

You may find the search queries page listed under search traffic tab after logging in to your webmasters account. This page displays the top queries that people are entering on Google and finding your website. You can see the query, impressions, clicks, CTR and average positions.

Query lists the specific user queries for which your site appeared in Google search results.

Impressions is the number of times your site was displayed in the search results.

Clicks shows the number of times users clicked on your site listing.

CTR shows the value returned after comparing the actual CTR with to the previous period.

Avg position indicates the difference between the average top position compared to the previous period.

Creating Filters 

Filters allows you to find specific search queries on the basis of three main divisions:-

Search - This option allows you to filter queries on the basis of image search, mobile search, video search and web search.

Location - This option allows you to filter queries on the basis of user location.

Traffic - This options allows you to filter queries having impressions fewer than 10 or more than 10.

Viewing Top Pages

Clicking on the top pages option from the search queries page displays the top pages on your website that has achieved the maximum number of impressions and clicks.

This data also displays four different columns of impressions, clicks, CTR and avg position.

How to Use Search Query Data to Optimize Your Site Performance

You can use the search query data to optimize your website. Here are some points:-

1- Locate the top pages on your site that are getting the maximum impressions and clicks. Check on what changes you did recently on those pages and use them as a base to improve the performance of the other pages on your site.

2- Identify the pages whose clicks are on decline and try to fix the issues. Many times, only simple tweaks can help in getting the lost traffic.

3- Identify pages that are getting the maximum impressions but no clicks and fix those in order to start generating more clicks. This process requires proper analysis but once done properly can result in massive improvement of traffic because your site is already getting an impression for the keyword.

4- Find out the percentage of mobile vs web users and try to optimize your content accordingly.

5- Find out the top queries that are generating more than 10 clicks by applying proper filters.

6- Identify queries where your site is close to making on the top 10 positions and try to optimize those queries. Less effort will provide more results if you constantly monitor the search query page offered under GWT.

Also See:-

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Avoid These Email Marketing No-Nos to Keep Your Reputation Clean

As a business or entrepreneur, your online reputation and how you interact with customers can directly affect your company's success. Every communication you send through email and every marketing message you relay has a direct impact on whether a potential customer will conduct transactions with you in the future.

Yes, you have a message to send and information to impart - but you also have to respect the audience of that message by honoring their time, intelligence, and autonomy. You can't force people to purchase your goods or services by forcing your marketing message down their throats. Part of the art of marketing and promotion is to treat your recipients with respect and deliver your information in a professional, businesslike manner.

Here are some no-nos to avoid when sending out marketing emails so they'll be seen in a more positive, welcoming light.

Distracting Fonts, Colors, Graphics, Etc.

While it's understandable that you want your marketing emails to stand out, realize that filling your emails with hard-to-read fonts, too many exclamation points, glaring background colors, or other distractions can detract from your professional image. Getting a client's attention isn't done with a chartreuse background and silly dancing cartoon characters lining the top and bottom of your message.

Keep your marketing emails clean, professional, and easy to read. Too many ellipses, question marks, exclamation points, or other embellishes may make it seem like an over anxious middle-schooler wrote your emails. That's not the image you want to project. Instead, opt for fonts that are easy on the eyes, big enough to read (but not too big!), and in black type on a white background.

Your emails reflect the philosophy of your company and should project an attitude of trust and confidence. If you must add a graphic, include your company's official logo. Don't try to add cutesy graphics that express inappropriate humor. 

Emails should have value and shouldn't be sent too often. Otherwise, they could end up in the junk mail folder.

Not Including an Opt-Out Option

Just because you can send marketing messages through email, that doesn't mean you can force the recipients to read your messages - or keep reading them after they've tired of it. As much as you want to promote your business, once you run afoul of current or potential customers, you will have a hard time bringing them back.

To preserve your positive reputation, always give your recipients a way to opt out of your emails. Be sure it's clear and easy for them to opt out, and don't make them go searching for the instructions on how to do so. Sometimes people want to take a break from all the mail in their inboxes, so just because someone unsubscribes doesn't mean they won't resubscribe in the future. Honor their wishes by immediately processing their opt-out request and they may rejoin your marketing list in the future.

Photobucket image courtesy of princedinakar
When it comes to email marketing, don't leave your methods to chance

Embedding Images and Videos

Nothing is more annoying than receiving an email with missing images or videos. Although it may seem like a cool thing to include, many recipients may not be able to view your embedded images or video. Instead of detracting from your written marketing message by making people wonder what's missing in your email - and how to make those images show up - forgo their use altogether.

Instead, you can point potential customers to a blog or a site that displays the images or videos for easier viewing. When it comes to designing marketing emails, keep it simple and direct. Don't introduce any elements that can complicate things or that will unnecessarily obscure your message.

As a final tip, have a look at blogs such as for extra assistance.

Email marketing is an important aspect of any business in this day and age. Be sure you guard your reputation by only using ethical methods for marketing your company's products and services through email. It's imperative that you ensure your actions won't hurt your good standing with clients and other professional associates, now and in the future.

Also See:- 

Your Ideal Facebook Marketing Strategy
Types of Email Marketing
How to Get Traffic from Pinterest
Twitter Marketing Strategy for Your Business
How to Seo for YouTube?

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Google Testing Author Information Links in Search Results?

Today, I noticed that Google is secretly testing the links present in the Google Authorship that is being displayed in the search results. 

Before the Testing Phase

Whenever we clicked on the author name displayed at the side of the author pic, we used to navigate to a search result page that showed all the pages along with the searched keywords that are authored by that author. 

During the Testing Phase

I noticed during the testing phase that Google provided a link to the Google+ profile page when I clicked on the author pic or on the author name. This continued for a few hours, then slowly the testing phase was over.

Did you noticed the same? Let me know in your comments.

Also See:- 

Sunday, September 1, 2013

User Permissions in Google Analytics

With the latest updates in the user settings and access controls, there are 4 different kinds of user permissions that you can set for specific users in Google Analytics.

To set user permissions, click on the Admin tab located in the upper right hand corner and then click on User Management as displayed in the image below:-

Users in GA can have any one or all of the below mentioned permissions. In other words, these can be used individually or in combination.

The 4 Different Permissions of GA 

Manage Users- Allows to add/remove and set permissions. Does not includes edit or collaborate, means you may or may not set permissions for edit/collaborate along with manager users.

Edit - Allows to perform all types of editing functions in reporting. Includes collaborate, means collaborate is included with edit option by default.

set user permissions in GA
User Permissions in GA
Collaborate - Allows to create personal assets and share them. Read and analyze is included with this permission by default.

Read and Analyze - Allows to read and manipulate already available data. It can be used as a single permission.

Of all of these 4 permissions, only Manager Users and Read and Analyze can be set as an individual permission.

Also See:-

Create Goals in GA
Custom Variables in Google Analytics
How to Create a New Dashboard in Google Analytics?
Understanding Goal Flow in Google Analytics
Google Tag Manager
Multi Channel Funnel in Google Analytics
Regular Expressions on Google Analytics